Part 1B Cellular & Developmental Biology
Plant Development
Prof. Jim Haseloff, University of Cambridge.

Summary:
These six lectures cover some striking features of biological self-organisation and morphogenesis using examples from the model plant, Arabidopsis thaliana. Plant cells are immobile, constrained by a rigid cell wall – yet plant development is plastic and indeterminate. Communication between neighbouring cells controls plant cell fate, and plays a major role in shaping plant growth.

Download lecture notes:
CDBnotes_2016.pdf (6.3 MB)

Printouts of slides (PDF format):
Lecture 1 slides (2016) Plant architecture and embryogenesis.
Lecture 2 slides (2016) Polarity and auxin flow.
Lecture 3 slides (2016) Regulation of gene expression by auxin.
Lecture 4 slides (2016) Patterning of indeterminate growth.
Lecture 5 slides (2016) Formation and specification of lateral organs.
Lecture 6 slides (2014) Morphogenesis and engineering of plant systems.

Online slide galleries:
Lecture 1 slide show (2016) Plant architecture and embryogenesis.
Lecture 2 slide show (2016) Polarity and auxin flow.
Lecture 3 slide show (2016) Regulation of gene expression by auxin.
Lecture 4 slide show (2016) Patterning of indeterminate growth.
Lecture 5 slide show (2016) Formation and specification of lateral organs.
Lecture 6 slide show (2016) Morphogenesis and engineering of plant systems.
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Recommended textbooks:
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Principles of Development
For an excellent and integrated overview of animal and plant development see: Principles of Development, Lewis Wolpert and Cheryll Tickle, Oxford University Press, 2011. (Chapter 7 provides a good overview of the lecture content).
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Mechanisms in Plant Development
For a concise view of plant development see:
Mechanisms in Plant Development, Ottoline Leyser & Stephen Day, Blackwell Science, UK, 2002.
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Branches: Nature's Patterns: A Tapestry in Three Parts
For a general discussion of self-organisation across physical and biological systems see: Nature's patterns: a tapestry in three parts, Shapes, Flow and Branches, Phillip Ball, Oxford University Press, 2009.
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Flow: Nature's Patterns: A Tapestry in Three Parts
Part of a trilogy of books exploring the science of patterns in nature by acclaimed science writer Philip Ball, this volume explores the elusive rules that govern flow - the science of chaotic behavior.
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Shape: Nature's Patterns: A Tapestry in Three Parts
Part of a trilogy of books exploring the science of patterns in nature by acclaimed science writer Philip Ball, this volume explores the elusive rules that govern flow - the science of chaotic behavior.
Background reading:
The development of Arabidopsis as a model plant. Koornneef, M., & Meinke, D. The Plant Journal : For Cell and Molecular Biology, 61:909-21 (2010).
Cabbage family affairs: The evolutionary history of Brassicaceae. Franzke, A., Lysak, M. A., Al-Shehbaz, I. A., Koch, M. A., & Mummenhoff, K. Trends in Plant Science (2010).
Arabidopsis thaliana as a model organism in systems biology. Norman, J. M. V., & Benfey, P. N. Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. Systems Biology and Medicine, 1:372-9 (2009).
Poorly known relatives of Arabidopsis thaliana. Clauss, M. J., & Koch, M. A. Trends in Plant Science, 11:449-59 (2006).


Information sheets:
Plant Cell Components. [PDF]
Glossary of Cell and Tissue Types. [PDF]
Specialised Plant Cell Types. [PDF]
Plant Cell Organelles. [PDF]
Plant Vasculature. [PDF]
Download crib sheets for keys to terminology and anatomy.
Further reading:

Lecture 1: Plant architecture and embryogenesis.
Prehistory and History of Arabidopsis Research. Meyerowitz, E.M. Plant Physiology 125: 15–19 (2001).
Embryogenesis - the humble beginnings of plant life. Smet, I. D., Lau, S., Mayer, U., & Jurgens, G. The Plant Journal : For Cell and Molecular Biology, 61:959-70 (2010).

Lecture 2: Polarity and auxin flow.
Auxin: A major regulator of organogenesis. Bohn-Courseau, I. Comptes Rendus Biologies, 333:290-6 (2010).
The march of the pins: Developmental plasticity by dynamic polar targeting in plant cells. Grunewald, W., & Friml, J. The EMBO Journal, 29:2700-14 (2010).

Lecture 3: Regulation of gene expression by auxin.
Auxin receptors and plant development: a new signaling paradigm. K.Mockaitis & M. Estelle Annual Rev. Cell Dev. Biol. 24:55-80 (2008).
Transcriptional responses to the auxin hormone. D. Weijers and D. Wagner, Annual Rev. Plant Biol. 67:21.1–21.36 (2016).
Structural biology of nuclear auxin action. D.C. Dinesh, L.I.A. Calderón Villalobos and S. Abel, Trends in Plant Science, 21:302-315 (2016).

Lecture 4: Patterning of indeterminate growth.
O Cell, Where Art thou? The mechanisms of shoot meristem patterning. C. Gaillochet, G. Daum and J.U. Lohmann Current Opinion in Plant Biology 23:91–97 (2015).
Twenty years on: The inner workings of the shoot apical meristem, a developmental dynamo. Barton, M. K. Developmental Biology, 341:95-113 (2010).

Lecture 5: Formation and specification of lateral organs.
Spatiotemporal signalling in plant development. E. Sparks, G. Wachsman and P.N. Benfey Nature Reviews Genetics 14:631-644 (2013).
Floral organ identity: 20 years of ABCs. Causier, B., Schwarz-Sommer, Z., & Davies, B. Seminars in Cell & Developmental Biology, 21:73-9 (2010).
Perspectives on leaf dorsoventral polarity. Szakonyi, D., Moschopoulos, A., & Byrne, M. E. Journal of Plant Research, 123:281-90 (2010).

Lecture 6: Morphogenesis.
Modeling plant growth and pattern formation. Jonsson, H., & Krupinski, P. Current Opinion in Plant Biology, 13:5-11 (2010).


Click links to download PDF files.